If the U.S. wishes to protect the Kurds in northeast Syria, it must persuade Ankara that the costs of defying Washington far outweigh the benefits.
While the removal of U.S. ground forces from Syria makes this task more difficult, the Trump administration still has powerful tools at its disposal. If it takes advantage of them, America can avert a crisis and begin to reassert its will in Syria. All without boots on the ground.
Andrew Gabel is a research analyst at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies. Follow him on Twitter at @Andrew_B_Gabel.