This volume examines the growing problem of American allies that simultaneously act as Washington’s adversaries or even enemies. This phenomenon, which has markedly grown in recent decades, can be discerned in the U.S.'s bilateral relationships with Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Turkey, all four of which are examined in extended case studies in this volume.


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INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1
When U.S. Allies Are Also Adversaries and Enemies: A Growing Trend –  Jonathan Schanzer & Daveed Gartenstein-Ross

PAKISTAN

Chapter 2
A Handcuffed Superpower: The U.S., Pakistan, and the Afghanistan War – Daveed Gartenstein-Ross
Chapter 3
Pakistan’s Proxies, Al-Qaeda’s Allies – Thomas Joscelyn
Chapter 4
Back to the Future: The Return to a Pre-9/11 World in Pakistan and Afghanistan – Reuel Marc Gerecht

SAUDI ARABIA

Chapter 5
Sources of American Frustration with Saudi Arabia – David Andrew Weinberg
Chapter 6
The Sequel: How the Saudis are Letting the Radicalism Genie Out of the Bottle, Again – Steven Miller
Chapter 7
Saudi Arabia: Terror Finance Before and After 9/11 – Jonathan Schanzer

QATAR

Chapter 8
Qatar’s Muslim Brothers: A Failing Regional Strategy – David Andrew Weinberg
Chapter 9
Qatari Foreign Policy and Islamist Violent Non-State Actors – Daveed Gartenstein-Ross & Luke Lischin
Chapter 10
Qatar’s Support for Hamas: A Pattern of Support for Militancy – David Barnett

TURKEY

Chapter 11
Turkey Exploits Iran’s Golden Loophole – Mark Dubowitz, Rachel Ziemba & Gary Clark
Chapter 12
Turkey’s Role in Syria – Tony Badran
Chapter 13
Turkey’s Risky Business with Hamas – Jonathan Schanzer
Chapter 14
Iran’s Turkish Proliferation Networks – Emanuele Ottolenghi
Chapter 15
Turkey’s Human Rights and Press Freedom – Karen Kaya

CONCLUSION

Chapter 16 
Navigating a World of Allies, Adversaries, and Enemies – Clifford D. May