Fdd's overnight brief

December 18, 2023

FDD Research & Analysis

In The News


United Nations officials called for an investigation into an Israeli military raid on a Gaza hospital during which patients died and the armed forces said they detained scores of Hamas militants and recovered a trove of weapons and other military equipment, some of which officials said was hidden inside an infant incubator and a resuscitation station for newborns. – Wall Street Journal 

The death of three Israeli hostages in Gaza shot and killed by Israel’s own military Friday in a case of mistaken identity has sparked fresh anger among the families of captives kidnapped by Hamas and renewed questions about the conduct of the war. – Wall Street Journal 

A quarter of a mile from a civilian border crossing between Israel and northern Gaza lies what Israel’s military says is the largest tunnel discovered in the enclave. It is large enough that large vehicles can drive through it, and yet, until recently, Israel didn’t know the tunnel reached right up to its border. – Wall Street Journal 

National security adviser Jake Sullivan Friday pressed Palestinian leaders to help provide security for the postwar Gaza Strip, Palestinian officials said, a day after pushing Israel to wind down its campaign against Hamas. – Wall Street Journal 

When President Biden cautioned Israel this week that it was losing international support due to the war in Gaza, he could just as well have been warning that his own administration also has a lot to lose. – Washington Post

Israeli strikes killed one of Tahani Abu Taima’s sons and one of her brothers, she says. But she fears a different killer is stalking what’s left of her family: disease. The World Health Organization warns that Gaza’s health-care system is “collapsing” and that “worrying signals of epidemic diseases” are emerging. – Washington Post

Television journalist Mohammed Balousha filmed a report about the communications blackout in Gaza on Saturday afternoon, working near his home in Jabalya in the north. But as he turned to return home, he suddenly fell. He was shot in his thigh, he told The Washington Post by phone on Sunday. – Washington Post

Israeli security officials scored a major intelligence coup in 2018: secret documents that laid out, in intricate detail, what amounted to a private equity fund that Hamas used to finance its operations. The ledgers, pilfered from the computer of a senior Hamas official, listed assets worth hundreds of millions of dollars. – New York Times

In the face of increasing pressure from the United States, Britain and Germany, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has doubled down on his opposition to what these allies see as the future of Gaza: an interim government overseen by the Palestinian Authority and an eventual Palestinian state existing alongside Israel. – New York Times

The United Nations Security Council could vote as early as Monday on a proposal to demand that Israel and Hamas allow aid access to the Gaza Strip – via land, sea and air routes – and set up U.N. monitoring of the humanitarian assistance delivered. – Reuters

Al Jazeera is preparing a legal file to send to the International Criminal Court (ICC) over what it called “the assassination” of one of its cameramen in Gaza, the Qatari-based network said on Saturday. – Reuters

Turkish Foreign Minister Hakan Fidan asked his U.S. counterpart Antony Blinken in a call on Sunday for Washington to use its influence over Israel to halt Israeli attacks on Gaza and the West Bank, a Turkish diplomatic source said. – Reuters

The Israel Defense Forces refuted on Sunday a claim that it had targeted a Catholic parish in the Gaza Strip, after the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem asserted that an elderly Christian woman and her daughter had been shot and killed by an Israeli sniper on the grounds of the Holy Family Parish on Saturday. – Agence France-Presse

Editorial: Gulf nations have indicated they will withhold reconstruction funds and financial support for any Gazan governing authority if Israel refuses to commit to a road map for a two-state solution. Mr. Biden should continue pressing Israel to conduct its Gaza military operations with maximal respect for civilian life, which has resulted in changes to Israeli tactics. He should also treat this moment as an unlikely opportunity, with care and caution — and a little bit of hope, too. – Washington Post

Editorial: The top-line interest is that Israeli security and Palestinian political emancipation both demand the same thing: the annihilation of Hamas. The U.S. must listen to the concerns of allies such as Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Where necessary, it should give honest and hard-headed advice to Israel. But Biden needs to wake up to the reality that although war is hell, Israel must win it. – Washington Examiner

Editorial: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu failed miserably on October 7. Now, with the backing he is giving to the settlers and the army, and his venomous rhetoric against the Palestinian Authority, he is setting Israel up for the emergence of a second front in the West Bank. – Haaretz

Editorial: This is heightened by the spirit of vengefulness and the cries of “Shema Yisrael” which are impacting the nature of the war, the intensity of shelling and the extent to which soldiers abide by the rules of engagement. The government must put the return of the hostages at the top of the national agenda and promote a deal for releasing them. – Haaretz

David Ignatius writes: Is there a happy ending to this story? Probably not, unless Biden can make a diplomatic push that we haven’t seen since the days of Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton. But on my journey, I met so many brave Israelis and Palestinians who are working together to document obstacles to peace that I can see a way forward — if America has the guts to help them. – Washington Post

Omar Dewachi writes: As if the aerial destruction weren’t enough, Israel’s assault on Gaza has set off a public health time bomb. The imperative is clear: The war must be brought to an immediate end, substantial humanitarian aid must be poured in, and Gaza’s medical and surgical services must be restored. The world must not stand for the targeting of the sick and dying — no matter what the military justification is. – New York Times

Eitan Charnoff and Hussein Aboubakr Mansour write: When asked about who was to blame for Oct. 7, some of the residents, standing next to charred bullet-ridden cars and damaged homes, quickly replied “Netanyahu.” Then, without hesitation, they added, “But he will be the one to save us from the threat of a Palestinian state tomorrow.” – The Hill

Andreas Kluth writes: There is a better way. Bibi could put his country’s future ahead of his own and align with his American friends rather than his extremist coalition partners. Since that seems unlikely, Israelis could also find a way to get rid of Netanyahu and put a wiser leader in power. That would be good for Israelis and Palestinians alike, and therefore also for the US. – Bloomberg

Michael Oren writes: So, too, must Israel persist in achieving its objective of destroying Hamas. By increasing the pressure on the terrorists, Israel succeeded in negotiating the first temporary ceasefires-for-hostages deals, and further such arrangements are possible. But Hamas will never release all its captives without ending the war and regaining the ability to rebuild, rearm, and reignite a new one. – Times of Israel

Seth Mandel writes: If the administration wants Israel to wrap up this phase quickly, the IDF will have to rely on air-to-surface munitions. That’s okay, because Israel is carrying out these attacks in a more guided manner and one which the U.S. is comfortable with. The only problem, you see, is that the world doesn’t agree. The world thinks these “dumb bombs” can only be used in unguided ways, therefore rendering the attacks “indiscriminate.” Now, if only we could figure out where they’re getting it from. – Commentary


No country stood to gain more from Hamas’s October attack on Israel and international anger at Israel’s response than Iran. But more than two months later, Tehran has yet to reap tangible strategic gains from the conflict. – Wall Street Journal 

An agent of Israel’s Mossad intelligence service was executed on Saturday in Iran’s southeastern Sistan-Baluchestan province, the official IRNA news agency reported. – Reuters

Salem Alketbi writes: The Palestinian refugee crisis will also worsen for years to come. It will add to the crises of the Arab region, making asylum, diaspora, and displacement the most prominent headlines in the Arab region, from Sudan to Libya, Syria, and the Palestinian territories. These ideal conditions are in the interest of terrorist organizations and those regional and international powers seeking to spread chaos and unrest in the Middle East, within the framework of a strategic struggle over status and influence in the global system. – Jerusalem Post

Helit Barel writes: For many years, Iran has employed its proxies in the Middle East with impunity, never paying the price itself for the various hostile actions it is responsible for. Now, with it getting closer and closer to crossing the nuclear threshold as demonstrated by the latest report by the IAEA – with UN sanctions on its missile program having lapsed months ago, and in light of the current conflict, one thing is very clear – Iran cannot be allowed to cross the nuclear threshold. – Jerusalem Post

Russia & Ukraine

The U.S. ambassador to Russia visited jailed Wall Street Journal reporter Evan Gershkovich on Friday, a day after President Vladimir Putin said Russia wants to reach an agreement on the return of the American journalist. – Wall Street Journal 

When Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky flew to Washington this week to plead for wartime aid, he found himself caught in a bitterly partisan U.S. domestic political dispute — again. – Washington Post

For two months, Ukraine’s Marine Corps has been spearheading an assault across the Dnipro River in the southern region of Kherson to recapture territory from Russian troops. The operation is Ukraine’s latest attempt in its flagging counteroffensive to breach Russian defenses in the south and turn the tide of the war. – New York Times

Ukraine and the European Commission will soon assess Kyiv’s progress on aligning its legislation with that of the European Union and a framework for EU accession talks is expected in the spring, President Volodymyr Zelenskiy said on Sunday. – Reuters

Ukraine and Russia launched a swarm of drones at each other’s territories on Sunday as both sides step up attacks, with the Russian assault reportedly killing one person in Odesa and the Ukrainian strike targeting a Russian military airfield. – Reuters

Ukraine’s security service said on Sunday it had launched a criminal probe under a law on information gathering after a “technical device” was found in an office that could have been used in the future by Commander in Chief Valery Zaluzhnyi. – Reuters

Kremlin chief Vladimir Putin dismissed as complete nonsense remarks by U.S. President Joe Biden that Russia would attack a NATO country if it won the war in Ukraine, adding that Russia had no interest in fighting the NATO military alliance. – Reuters

Russian rocket forces have loaded a new Yars intercontinental ballistic missile into a silo at the Kozelsk base in the Kaluga region, southwest of Moscow, the defence ministry said. – Reuters

Marc Champion writes: Even more important is to stress that these costs aren’t just being incurred for Ukraine’s sake, but for their own. Putin’s invasion has proved that large-scale war is again possible and that Europe’s militaries in particular need to restore their capacity to fight one. War tends to come to the unready. – Bloomberg

Edward Lucas writes: That may sound like a long time, given the electoral calendar in Western democracies, fickle public opinion, and competing priorities for decision-makers’ attention. But Ukraine’s defeat will shape the world for longer, and impose vastly higher costs. Estonia understands that all too well. Do we? – Center for European Policy Analysis

Susi Dennison and Pawel Zerka write: For any of this to be credible, however, European leaders need to develop a more convincing case for how Ukraine can win. A Ukrainian victory requires Europe to invest in its defense industrial capacity, so that it can sustain Ukraine, even if Washington stops. Russia is banking on its ability to outlast Western support for Ukraine, and that bet needs to be proved wrong. – Foreign Affairs


In the Lebanese city of Tyre, an ancient Christian community is preparing for Christmas in the shadow of conflict, with the intermittent thud of shelling at the border serving as a constant reminder of the threat of war with Israel. – Reuters

An IDF jet struck Hezbollah terror infrastructure in Lebanese territory, the IDF said on Sunday. The jet also targeted a terrorist cell in Lebanon that had attempted to fire an anti-tank missile into Israel. – Jerusalem Post

Defense Minister Yoav Gallant threatens Hezbollah for the umpteenth time as the Iran-backed terror group continues to carry out daily rocket, missile, and drone attacks on northern Israel. – Times of Israel

According to Kan Reshet Bet, French President Emmanuel Macron recently sent a message to Lebanon warning that, “The rules of the game that existed before October 7 are not the rules of the game today. We are in a different reality and you need to understand that the situation has changed.” – Arutz Sheva


The tensions spilling over from the war in Gaza to merchant shipping in the Red Sea escalated on Saturday when Britain and the United States said their militaries had shot down more than a dozen attack drones. – New York Times

Egypt’s Suez canal authority said on Sunday it was closely monitoring the impact of tensions in the Red Sea after recent attacks by Yemen’s Houthis on vessels in the southern part of the basin. – Reuters

Two major freight firms including MSC, the world’s biggest container shipping line, on Saturday said they would avoid the Suez Canal as Houthi militants in Yemen stepped up their assaults on commercial vessels in the Red Sea. – Reuters

A possible explosion near a vessel in the vicinity of Bab al-Mandab Strait, 30 nautical miles south of Yemen’s port of Mokha, was reported on Monday by the United Kingdom Maritime Trade Operation (UKMTO) and the British maritime security firm Ambrey. – Reuters

Yemen’s Iran-aligned Houthi movement has engaged in Oman-mediated talks with “international parties” about its operations in the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, a Houthi spokesman said on Saturday, following a series of attacks on ships by the militia group. – Reuters

Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin has ordered the USS Gerald R. Ford aircraft carrier and one other warship to remain in the Mediterranean Sea for several more weeks to maintain a two-carrier presence near Israel as its war with Hamas grinds on, U.S. officials said. – Associated Press

Editorial: The expanding Houthi threat, like the Hamas massacre and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, is another example of the disorder that spreads when U.S. deterrence fails. The restoration of deterrence is crucial to reducing the spread of global mayhem. It should be front-and-center in the U.S. presidential campaign. – Wall Street Journal 

Middle East & North Africa

Iraqis were casting ballots on Monday in the first elections for provincial councils in a decade, with the ruling Shi’ite Muslim alliance likely to extend its grip on power amid a boycott by populist cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, its main political rival. – Reuters

Like his immediate predecessor, Kuwait’s new ruler is taking over in his 80s and will be confronted with the same economy-hobbling political dysfunction that has for years doomed reforms. – Bloomberg

Senior Hamas officials held a secret meeting last week in Turkey, Israel’s national broadcaster KAN revealed on Sunday night. At the head of the meeting were Deputy Chairman of the Political Bureau of Hamas Saleh al-Arouri, who attended from his residence in Beirut, and former Hamas chief Khaled Mashal, who lives in the Qatari capital, Doha. Several other senior Hamas officials attended, according to KAN. – Jerusalem Post

Korean Peninsula

North Korea launched an intercontinental ballistic missile off its east coast on Monday, its first long-range missile test since July, the South Korean military said. The missile was fired from near Pyongyang, the North’s capital, flying high into space before landing 620 miles to the east in waters between the Korean Peninsula and Japan, South Korean military officials said. – New York Times

China’s Foreign Minister Wang Yi held high-level talks with a North Korean vice foreign minister in Beijing on Monday, coinciding with Pyongyang’s launch of a missile capable of reaching anywhere in the United States. – Reuters

A U.S. nuclear-powered submarine arrived in the South Korean port city of Busan on Sunday, the Yonhap news agency reported citing the South Korean navy. – Reuters

The United States has warned North Korea that any nuclear attack against the nation or its allies “is unacceptable and will result in the end of the (Kim Jong) Un regime,” a joint US-South Korean statement said on Saturday. – Reuters

US-South Korean cooperation on nuclear deterrence to counter the threat from North Korea has deepened in recent months after the Biden administration renewed its security pledge for Seoul in April, the White House said in a statement. – Bloomberg


Midway through 2001, the U.S.-China relationship looked to be in a dire place. Two years earlier, NATO missiles had hit the Chinese Embassy in Serbia, killing three Chinese citizens. Then the spy plane crisis of April 2001—where a Chinese plane collided with a U.S. jet near China’s coast, killing the Chinese pilot—ratcheted tensions up even more. – Wall Street Journal 

Two suspected Chinese weather balloons flew across the sensitive Taiwan Strait on Sunday but stayed well to the north of Taiwan, the island’s defence ministry said on Monday, the second time this month Taipei has reported them nearby. – Reuters

China will on Friday conduct sea trials for its first ocean research drilling vessel, capable of drilling at depths of more than 10,000 metres (32,800 feet), a key step towards beefing up the country’s deep-sea oil and gas exploration capabilities. – Reuters

Ali Wyne and David Gordon writes: Paradoxically, then, even as the United States works to dissuade a Chinese invasion of Taiwan, it should affirm China’s optimism about the future: the less short-term urgency Beijing feels to achieve reunification, the more time Washington will have to hone a blend of deterrence and reassurance that reduces the odds of a catastrophic confrontation. – The National Interest


An Indian man accused by U.S. authorities of attempting to kill an American Sikh activist has petitioned India’s Supreme Court, saying he is a victim of mistaken identity and caught in the middle of political tensions between the U.S. and India. – Wall Street Journal 

The most high-profile case of Hong Kong’s yearslong effort to snuff out dissent after protests rocked the city began on Monday as newspaper tycoon Jimmy Lai went on trial under the national security law imposed by Beijing. – Wall Street Journal

U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken denounced the Hong Kong government for publishing what he called a “bounty list” of pro-democracy activists living overseas, including a U.S. citizen. – Washington Post

Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos Jr said his country is working to resolve “exploration issues” in the South China Sea so it could start new energy exploration projects in the resource-rich waterway to meet his nation’s energy needs. – Reuters

Indonesia and Japan have agreed on the removal of more trade barriers, Indonesia’s foreign minister said on Saturday, after the two countries concluded negotiations on protocols to improve their bilateral economic agreements. – Reuters

The United States will continue to closely cooperate with Vietnam, a U.S. official said after Hanoi announced last week strengthened ties with China, including on  defence and security, as the two great powers compete for influence. – Reuters

Japan and Malaysia signed a security assistance deal on Saturday including a grant of 400 million yen ($2.8 million) to boost Malaysia’s maritime security, as Asian nations seek to counter an increasingly assertive China. – Reuters

Editorial: Hong Kong and China are touchy about foreign nations pointing out the obvious. So they were angered last week when Britain’s foreign secretary, David Cameron, met with Mr. Lai’s son Sebastien. The British criticized the national security law, and Sebastien Lai said Mr. Cameron told him the case of his father, who is a British citizen, is a priority for the U.K. government. – Wall Street Journal

Damjan Krnjević Mišković writes: I believe this is due at least in part to Yerevan coming to terms with the deleterious consequences of the West’s (and particularly France’s) rather quixotic flirtation with Armenia—a country that remains locked in an unhappy marriage with Russia with no short-term perspective whatsoever for separation, much less divorce, given the country’s geopolitical and geoeconomics realities. – The National Interest

Joseph Epstein writes: The scale of Husseiniyyun action in Azerbaijan is hard to estimate. The security services are tight-lipped about counterterrorism operations against Islamists. But so far, the group has proved capable of striking targets in Azerbaijan and abroad. As Iranian proxies batter U.S. military and government targets across the region, the U.S. and Israeli personnel in the Caucasus must be vigilant. – The National Interest


President Aleksandar Vucic, Serbia’s strongman leader and Russia’s closest ally in Europe, tightened his decade-long grip on power on Sunday with what preliminary results indicated was a big win for his governing party in a snap general election. – New York Times

The Hungarian prime minister, Viktor Orban, torpedoed the aid package, strongly supported by much bigger countries like Germany, France and Poland, by exploiting the power of veto held by each of 27 member states over key decisions relating to foreign and security policy and spending. – New York Times

Austria has given its approval to a 12th package of EU sanctions on Russia after Ukraine removed Raiffeisen Bank International (RBIV.VI) from a blacklist, Ukraine’s government website and an EU diplomat said on Saturday. – Reuters

Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria plan a joint force to clear mines drifting into their areas of the Black Sea as part of the fallout from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. – Bloomberg

Lionel Laurent writes: Orban’s antics will serve as an incentive to look for creative solutions in the short term. The current hope is that the EU can move ahead without Budapest, or keep finding fixes — like the €10 billion in frozen funds for Hungary that were recently unlocked. But longer-term, unity looks fragile. Ukraine will need many more historic breakthroughs. – Bloomberg

Mila Bakic and Grant Baker write: As Serbian voters go to the polls, disinformation campaigns, severe online harassment, and legal intimidation are drowning out critical voices and opposing narratives. The strategy of “information chaos” deserves deep analysis and the international community should be clear-eyed about Serbia’s degrading online environment. – Center for European Policy Analysis


Artillery boomed, shaking the ground, as a couple scurried through the streets of Saké, their possessions balanced on their heads, in the embattled east of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

At a crossroads, they passed a giant poster of Congo’s president, Felix Tshisekedi, who is standing for re-election on Wednesday. “Unity, Security, Prosperity,” read the slogan. They hurried along. – New York Times

Fighting in Sudan has spread to the outskirts of a major city that is a refuge for displaced people and a center for aid groups, threatening to open another deadly front in an eight-month war that has devastated Africa’s third-largest nation. – New York Times

Sudan has ordered three diplomats from Chad to leave the country within 72 hours, saying the individuals were “persona non grata”, the Sudanese state news agency reported on Sunday. – Reuters

More than 40 Sudanese mothers from the embattled Masalit tribe detailed how their children, mostly boys, were shot, beaten or knifed to death by fighters in the Arab-dominated RSF paramilitary and allied militias. The tribe’s leader alleges this years’ attacks are part of a campaign to exterminate his people. – Reuters

Chad holds a referendum on a new constitution on Sunday that looks unlikely to mend deep divisions between the junta and opposing groups that have fuelled a political and security crisis in one of the world’s poorest countries. – Reuters

The parties to a ceasefire in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) have agreed to a two-week extension, White House National Security Council spokesperson Adrienne Watson said on Friday. – Reuters

Nigeria’s Supreme Court on Friday overturned a lower court ruling dismissing terrorism charges against a popular separatist leader whose trial has been blamed for an outbreak of violence in the country’s southeast region. – Associated Press

The Americas

Fifteen months ago, Chileans resoundingly rejected a constitution that would have upended the country’s free-market economy with far-reaching reforms, from increasing environmental oversight in mining to guaranteeing new social rights that would have boosted taxes. – Wall Street Journal 

U.S. border officials on Sunday closed two rail bridges that move freight between Texas and Mexico after detecting a surge in the smuggling of migrants through Mexico by train. – Reuters

Canadian officials charged a youth in Ottawa with “terrorism” offences over alleged targeting of the Jewish community, police said on Saturday, amid warnings of rising antisemitism from the war in the Middle East. – Reuters

Rebels from Colombia’s leftist National Liberation Army said Sunday they have agreed to stop using kidnapping as a fund-raising tactic, if the current cease-fire with the government is extended. – Associated Press

Ryan C. Berg, Laura Delgado Lopez, and Gerardo Penchyna Cardenas write: The U.S.-Argentina relationship has long possessed latent potential to become truly strategic. While previous leaders—particularly, Bill Clinton and Carlos Menem in the late 1990s—came close, the relationship has never quite blossomed into a fully “strategic partnership.” Both sides would benefit from concrete actions toward change. Expanding cooperation in key areas like energy, minerals security, and space could advance complex multilateral policy efforts and hemispheric priorities. – Center for Strategic and International Studies


Europe is seeking final offers for a 6 billion euro ($6.55 billion) EU satellite constellation which is designed to compete with Elon Musk’s Starlink and Jeff Bezos’ Kuiper. – Reuters 

A new influence campaign that has gained substantial traction is pushing pro-China and anti-United States narratives on YouTube, researchers have found. According to a report released this week by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI), the videos garnered substantial views and subscribers — a rarity in the world of social media influence operations. – The Record

Editorial: A broader rethinking of copyright, perhaps inspired by what some AI companies are already doing, could ensure that human creators get some recompense when AI consumes their work, processes it and produces new material based on it in a manner current law doesn’t contemplate. But such a shift shouldn’t be so punishing that the AI industry has no room to grow. That way, these tools, in concert with human creators, can push the progress of science and useful arts far beyond what the Framers could have imagined. – Washington Post

Tobin Harshaw writes: Both. But in terms of us looking at national security in general, there’s a role for the federal government, there’s a role for universities, there’s a role for Silicon Valley today. It’s a collaborative Western-style effort as opposed to being a centralized one. – Bloomberg


In August, the Pentagon announced an ambitious, two-year plan to develop thousands of drones to swarm and overwhelm China’s much larger arsenal of weapons — and do it cheaply. Four months later, no one seems to be able to explain the plan or how the Pentagon will pay for it. – Politico

More than four years after being reinstated, U.S. Space Command is now fully operational. The milestone, which the command announced Dec. 15, is essentially a recognition that SPACECOM meets the criteria to execute the full range of its mission to deliver a range of space capabilities to military users and combatant commanders. – Defense News

Mark R. Whittington writes: Still, the United States should not be complacent. Both Egypt and Jordan, moderate Arab states, should be enticed into the Artemis Accords. The Artemis Program alone will not bring peace to the Middle East, but it will demonstrate the benefits of the peaceful exploration of space in a part of the world too often characterized by war and death. – The Hill

Kent Conrad and Saxby Chambliss write: Over the past decade years, Beijing has made it a top national priority to win the global tech race and pioneer the next-generation technologies, particularly AI, quantum computing, and biotechnology, which promise to fundamentally transform practically every facet of society. As such, they have engaged in espionage, and IP theft, while investing billions in state subsidies to bolster Chinese firms’ position, especially on next-generation technologies critical to economic and military power. – The National Interest