February 24, 2021 | Visual

Key Sunsets Under the JCPOA and UNSC Resolution 2231

February 24, 2021 | Visual

Key Sunsets Under the JCPOA and UNSC Resolution 2231

A re-entry into the 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) by the United States would be a disservice to America’s nonproliferation objectives, as well as to President Joe Biden’s nascent Iran policy. Many of the major limitations included in the JCPOA and its accompanying United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolution (2231) on the Islamic Republic’s nuclear and missile programs are set to expire or “sunset,” meaning Washington would be re-joining an accord that doesn’t block Iran’s pathways to nuclear weapons. After 2031, there are no provisions that stop Iran from producing and amassing weapon-grade uranium.

*Visual updated on March 24, 2021

Sources

All JCPOA prohibitions are tied to Implementation Day (January 16, 2016) : Annex I, paragraph 1

All UNSCR prohibitions are tied to Adoption Day (October 18, 2015): Annex V (various)

Arms Embargo

  • UNSCR 2231: Annex B, “Statement,” paragraph 5

Visa Bans

  • UNSCR 2231: Annex B, “Statement,” paragraph 6 (e)

Sanctions

  • JCPOA: Annex V, paragraphs 19, 20 – 20.4, and 21 – 21.3

Import/Export of Missile-Related Equipment

  • UNSCR 2231: Annex B, “Statement,” paragraph 4

Ballistic missiles

  • UNSCR 2231: Annex B, “Statement,” paragraph 3

UN-sponsored asset freeze

  • UNSCR 2231: Annex B, “Statement,” paragraph 6 (c)

Advanced centrifuges

Past UNSC resolutions related to Iran’s nuclear program

UN procurement channel

“Snapback” mechanism

  • JCPOA/UNSCR 2231: Annex V, section E: UNSCR Termination Day, paragraphs 23-24

Mass deployment of centrifuges, including advanced centrifuges

Advanced centrifuge deployments

  • Institute for Science and International Security analysis of Iran’s long-term enrichment plan

Enrichment purity level

Enriched uranium stockpile

Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant

New enrichment plants

Plutonium reprocessing

Heavy water reactors

Heavy water production/domestic stockpiling

  • JCPOA: Annex I, “Nuclear-related measures,” paragraph 14

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Key Sunsets Under the JCPOA and UNSC Resolution 2231

Projects

Issues:

Iran Iran Missiles Iran Nuclear Iran Sanctions